He bought the Waterhouse Electric Light Company in and the United States Illuminating Company ingiving Westinghouse their own arc lighting systems as well as control War currents all the major incandescent lamp patents not controlled by Edison.
At this meeting, supporters of AC provided anecdotal stories from electricians on how they had survived shocks from AC at voltages up to volts and argued that DC was the War currents dangerous of the two. As arc lighting systems spread so did stories of how the high voltages involved were killing people, usually unwary War currents, a War currents new phenomenon that seemed to instantaneously strike a victim dead.
As the lunchtime crowd below looked on he grabbed a nearby line that, unknown to him, had been shorted many blocks away with a high-voltage AC line. He opened his first power plant, in New York City, in They needed high voltages above 3, volts and some ran better on alternating current.
An AC charged broken wire from the storm led to the electrocution of a boy that spring. The magazine investigated the claim and found at most only two of the deaths could be attributed to Westinghouse installations. Instead of former series connection they connect transformers that supply the appliances in parallel to the main line.
Westinghouse purchased the US patents rights to the Gaulard-Gibbs transformer and imported several of those as well as Siemens AC generators to begin experimenting with an AC-based lighting system in Pittsburgh.
The primary drawback with the Edison direct current system was that it ran at volts from generation to its final destination giving it a relatively short useful transmission range: The majority War currents the letters were correspondence between Brown and Thomson-Houston on the topic of acquiring the three Westinghouse generators for the state of New York as well as using one of them in an efficiency test.
Tesla quit his job in and a few years later received a War currents of patents for his AC technology. Westinghouse saw a way to build a truly competitive system instead of simply building another barely competitive DC lighting system using patents just different enough to get around the Edison patents.
Westinghouse criticized these tests as a skewed self-serving demonstration designed to be a direct attack on alternating current. In March when members of the Medico-Legal Society embarked on another series of tests to work out the details of electrode composition and placement they turned to Brown for technical assistance.
Execution by electricity[ edit ] Further information: Besides being an eyesoreNew Yorkers were annoyed when a large March snowstorm the Great Blizzard of tore down a large number of the lines, cutting off utilities in the city. Also in March, Superintendent of Prisons Austin Lathrop asked Brown if he could supply the equipment needed for the executions as well as design the electric chair.
The press in New York seemed to switch overnight from stories about electric lights vs gas lighting to "death by wire" incidents, with each new report seeming to fan public resentment against high voltage AC and the dangerously tangled overhead electrical wires in the city.
At the peak of the war of currents, Edison himself joined the public debate for the first time, denounced AC current in a November article in the North American Review titled "The Dangers of Electric Lighting".
Elizabeth Nix In the late 19th century, three brilliant inventors, Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse, battled over which electricity system—direct current DC or alternating current AC —would become standard.
There were many rebuttals to Browns claims in the newspapers and letters to the board, with people pointing out he was showing no scientific evidence that AC was more dangerous than DC.
The term "Westinghoused" was put forward as well as "Gerrycide" after death penalty commission head Elbridge Gerryand "Browned". Edison designed his "utility" to compete with the then established gas lighting utilities, basing it on a relatively low volt direct current supply to power a high resistance incandescent lamp he had invented for the system.
In addition, Thomas Edison himself sent a letter to the city government of Scranton, Pennsylvania recommending Brown as an expert on the dangers of AC. All of the companies had their own electric power systems, arc lighting systems, and even incandescent lamp designs for domestic lighting, leading to constant lawsuits and patent battles between themselves and with Edison.
During this period Westinghouse continued to pour money and engineering resources into the goal of building a completely integrated AC system. After Westinghouse installed his first large scale system Edison wrote in a November private letter to Edward Johnson, "Just as certain as death Westinghouse will kill a customer within six months after he puts in a system of any size, He has got a new thing and it will require a great deal of experimenting to get it working practically.
Direct-current generators could be easily paralleled, allowing economical operation by using smaller machines during periods of light load and improving reliability. Edison thanked him but said "My laboratory work consumes the whole of my time". Brownwho at that time seemed to have no connection to the Edison company,  sent a June 5, letter to the editor of the New York Post claiming the root of the problem was the alternating current AC system being used.
Hastings who came up with the idea of using Brown and several New York physicians to attack Westinghouse and the other AC companies in retaliation for what Hastings thought were unscrupulous bids by Westinghouse for lighting contracts in Denver and Minneapolis.
Hillwhich including Southwick, recommended in that executions be carried out by electricity using the electric chair. The pamphlet also emphasized the safety and efficiency of direct current, with the claim DC had not caused a single death, and included newspaper stories of accidental electrocutions caused by alternating current.
Arc lighting systems were extremely brilliant and capable of lighting whole streets, factory yards, or the interior of large buildings. Inhe sold his patents to industrialist George Westinghouse, whose Westinghouse Electric Company had quickly become an Edison competitor.
At their November meeting the committee recommended volts although the type of electricity, direct current or alternating currentwas not determined. During this time they sought the advice of Harold Brown as a consultant.
He also thought the idea of using AC lighting in residential homes was too dangerous and had the company hold back on that type of installations until a safer transformer could be developed.
He also pointed out 87 deaths in one year caused by street cars and gas lighting vs only 5 accidental electrocutions and no in-home deaths attributed to AC current. William Kemmler was sentenced to die in the electric chair around June 24,but before the sentence could be carried out an appeal was filed on the grounds that it constituted cruel and unusual punishment under the US Constitution.
Starting in the s alternating current gained its key advantage over direct current with the development of functional transformers that allowed the voltage to be "stepped up" to much higher transmission voltages and then dropped down to a lower end user voltage for business and residential use.
What was the War of the Currents?Feb 01, · Backed by J.P. Morgan, Edison dazzles the world by lighting Manhattan. But Westinghouse, aided by Nikola Tesla, has seen fatal flaws in Edison's direct current design.
Igniting a war of currents, Westinghouse and Tesla bet everything on risky and dangerous alternating current/10(). The war of the currents grew out of the development of two lighting systems; arc lighting running on alternating current and incandescent lighting running on direct current.
Both were supplanting gas lighting systems, with arc lighting taking over large area/street lighting, and incandescent lighting replacing gas for business and residential lighting. The War of Currents was a great science and technology feud in the late s between the Edison Electric Light Company and Westinghouse Electric Company over what electric power transmission system should be used.
War of the Currents: Thomas Edison Vs Nikola Tesla (Scientific Rivalries and Scandals) Library Binding – August 1, by/5(2). Jan 30, · During their bitter dispute, dubbed the War of the Currents, Edison championed the direct-current system, in which electrical current flows steadily in one direction, while Tesla and Westinghouse promoted the alternating-current system, in which the current’s flow constantly alternates.
So it appears the War of the Currents may not be over yet. But instead of continuing in a heated AC vs. DC battle, it looks like the two currents will end up working parallel to each other in a sort of hybrid armistice.Download